In 1985, the Royal Government of Bhutan requested Unesco to provide technical assistance in primary school building design. Under
it’s Special Account, Unesco approved a two months consultancy with
the Following terms of reference:
(a) Develop prototype designs for three primary school types: three
hundred, five hundred and seven hundred students, for two clima-
tic zones: warm and cold;
(b) Develop prototype designs of teachers’ quarters;
(c) Develop designs of simple furniture for rural schools.
The consultant, Mr. De Spiegeleer is an architect from Belgium
who has worked with Unesco Bangkok as an associate expert and concen-
trated on development of standards for primary schools and teacher
training institutions in Asia and the Pacific region.
The consultant took up duty in the field on 12 March 1986 and
remaind until 14 May 1986.
In view of the recent developments and changes in the educa-
tional policy adopted for the Six Five Year Plan (1987-1991) and the
Government will to set up standards for primary school building which
would improve their quality and make easier the planning of construc-
tion programmes, the terms of reference were reviewed and modified as
Develop a technical Design Guideline/Workbook for the design
of primary schools and specifically:
(b) Develop prototype building modules which combined in various ways can suit for schools of different capacities and changing
(c) Study alternative building methods to ensure that buildings will
be long lasting and adapted to the various climatic zones while
keeping the cost as low as possible.
(d) Develop standards and norms for non-teaching spaces including
school administration, teacher quarters, students’ hostel and
This booklet is the result of the mission. It is a first attempt
to establish primary school building standards and norms for Bhutan.
While covering most aspects of the design of primary education insti- tutions aspects including buildings, site development and furniture,
it is not complete. Therefor this document will need to be updated
from time to time to keep up with the rapid developments in Bhutan
and incorporating the experience acquired trough the application of
the various recommendations given
(a) Elaborate standards and norms for the design of primary school buildings which will suit for the newly introduced curriculum.